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How the Hop Latent Viroid in Impacting the Michigan Cannabis Industry

Updated: Feb 13

Executive Summary

Hop Latent Viroid (HpLVd) has emerged as a significant threat to the cannabis industry in Michigan, affecting the production and quality of cannabis products. This report delves into the details of the virus, its symptoms, and the impact it has had on the state's cannabis production. It explores the economic consequences, regulatory measures, the extent of the outbreak, and the effect on product quality. Finally, the report offers recommendations for managing and preventing the spread of the virus and suggests measures that growers can adopt to combat the issue.


Hop Latent Viroid (HpLVd) is a small, single-stranded, circular RNA molecule known to infect hop plants and cannabis plants. The viroid has been spreading rapidly in the cannabis industry, causing severe economic losses and decreased product quality.

Symptoms and Transmission

Infected cannabis plants may exhibit various symptoms such as stunted growth, reduced yield, altered flower structure, and diminished resin production. In some cases, infected plants may not show any visible symptoms, making detection challenging. HpLVd can be transmitted through physical contact, contaminated tools, and infected plant material, including seeds and clones.

Comparison between two cannabis plants.
Symptoms (leaf distortion and vein yellowing) on Japanese hop plants infected with HLVd.

Impact on Michigan's Cannabis Industry

The outbreak of HpLVd in Michigan has raised concerns among growers and regulators alike. The following factors contribute to the impact of the virus on the state's cannabis industry:

  1. Economic Impact: The presence of HpLVd has led to substantial financial losses due to reduced crop yield, compromised product quality, and the need for increased testing measures. Additionally, growers face added costs for implementing preventative measures and disposing of infected plants.

  2. Regulatory Measures: Michigan authorities have been working to address the HpLVd issue by implementing stricter testing requirements, enforcing quarantines, and educating growers about the virus and its implications.

  3. Extent of the Outbreak: While the exact extent of the outbreak remains unknown, anecdotal reports indicate a significant number of cannabis cultivators in Michigan have been affected by HpLVd. The viroid's ability to spread rapidly and remain undetected exacerbates the problem.

  4. Quality of Cannabis Products: HpLVd-infected plants produce lower-quality cannabis products with reduced potency, which may result in consumer dissatisfaction and potential harm to the reputation of Michigan's cannabis industry.

cannabis plant that is mock-innoculated and HLVd-innoculated
HLVd associated symptoms in susceptible cannabis plants.


To manage and prevent further spread of HpLVd in Michigan, the following recommendations are proposed:

  1. Education and Awareness: Increase awareness among growers and industry stakeholders about HpLVd, its symptoms, transmission methods, and management strategies. Conduct workshops and provide educational materials to help identify and mitigate the risks associated with the viroid.

  2. Testing and Monitoring: Implement mandatory testing protocols for seedlings, clones, and mother plants to identify HpLVd infections early and prevent their spread. Regularly monitor cultivation facilities for signs of infection.

  3. Sanitation and Hygiene: Encourage strict sanitation measures, such as the use of disposable gloves, sterilization of tools, and isolation of infected plants. Implement hygiene protocols to minimize the risk of transmission through human contact and equipment.

  4. Integrated Pest Management: Promote the use of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies that focus on prevention, early detection, and environmentally friendly control measures to combat HpLVd in cannabis cultivation.

By adopting these recommendations, Michigan can effectively manage the HpLVd outbreak and safeguard its thriving cannabis industry from further losses and damage.

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